Pain & Fibromyalgia
Gowers coined the term “Fibrositis” in the year 1904. Later, fibrositis came to be known as Fibromyalgia. In the year 1950, Graham introduced the modern concept of fibromyalgia. The condition is also referred to as “pain syndrome” in the absence of a specific organic disease. Fibromyalgia is a prevalent chronic condition, yet challenging to diagnose and treat. Fibromyalgia is a psychosomatic disorder. Fibromyalgia is widely prevalent in women than in men. Owing to lack of associated abnormalities on readily available diagnostic tests, it is a baffling problem to patients as well as physicians.
Fibromyalgia is the second most common disorder observed by rheumatologists after osteoarthritis. Fibromyalgia affects about 2–3% of adults, with three-fold higher prevalence in women than in men. The peak prevalence of fibromyalgia occurs in the age group of 55–64 years. The prevalence of fibromyalgia has been estimated to be in the range of 1–2% (3.4% for women and 0.5% for men). One of the common causes of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain is fibromyalgia.
In addition to chronic pain, patients with fibromyalgia present with fatigue, tender points, cognitive disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and multiple somatic symptoms. The fundamental manifestation of fibromyalgia is a widespread musculoskeletal pain. Tender points are located in different sites. Nevertheless, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has recognised 18 sites as a more characteristic for fibromyalgia.
Modifications in the pattern of sleep and alterations in neuroendocrine transmitters such as serotonin, substance P, growth hormone and cortisol have been observed in a patient with fibromyalgia. Central amplification is perhaps the underlying process responsible for widespread chronic pain in fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia has a significant impact on the performing daily activities.